Melatonin: What is it? Side Effects and Benefits


Melatonin is produced in our brain, specifically in the pineal gland. Although this gland performs various functions in our body, its primary function is to regulate the sleep and wake cycle, which is achieved by transforming serotonin into melatonin.

Melatonin is synthesized from an amino acid known as tryptophan.

  • Formula: C13H16N2O2 _ _ _ _ _ _
  • IUPAC name : N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]
  • Half-life: 35-50 minutes
  • Metabolism: Hepatic via 6-hydroxylation mediated by CYP1A2
  • Bioavailability : 30-50%
  • Legal status : S4 (AU) OTC (USA)
  • CAS number: 73-31-4
  • ATC code: N05CH01
  • PubChem: 896
  • DrugBank: APRD00742
  • ChemSpider : 872
  • KEGG: D08170
  • ChEBI : 16796

How does melatonin help us sleep?

Many people associate this hormone with rest, but what is it? 

It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect the body from damage caused by free radicals and is also a potent anti-inflammatory.

This is known worldwide as the “sleep hormone” since its primary function is to regulate the sleep cycle and the circadian rhythm, achieving complete rest and recovery. 

What is melatonin? All about the sleep hormone

It should be known that melatonin is released in the blood vessels, usually during the night hours or when it is dark, during daylight hours, the production of this hormone stops. Therefore, it should be borne in mind that melatonin is not a sleeping pill but rather a sleep stimulant

As the production of this is activated in the dark, people with sleep problems mustn’t expose themselves to the light of light bulbs and electronic devices before going to sleep.

This amino acid is obtained through the consumption of certain foods. 

What is melatonin used for? Properties and benefits

This hormone has been widely used to treat sleep disorders and other pathologies in recent years. Although this is produced naturally by the body, it is also possible to introduce it into our body through supplements. Next, you will know some of the properties of the sleep hormone.

  • Incites to sleep. The pineal gland is activated at night because it is stimulated by darkness. This raises the level of melatonin in the body, which gradually produces a feeling of relaxation and finally leads the person to sleep. But with the presence of sunlight, the amount of melatonin decreases, which causes the person to wake up. That is why melatonin is known as the sleep hormone.
  • It is an ally against aging. This hormone fights free radicals, thanks to its antioxidant effect. Therefore, it serves to combat premature aging.
  • Promotes growth. Various specialists assure a relationship between melatonin and the production of somatotropin, the hormone that regulates growth in children. For this reason, some specialists recommend it to improve growth problems in children.
  • Helps lose weight. A relationship has been discovered between this hormone and people’s appetite level, which has led some doctors to recommend melatonin-based dietary supplements to help regulate the feeling of fullness when eating. This hormone can decrease the amount of fatty tissue accumulated in the tissues.
  • Reduces migraine. It is a hormone that also has an anti-inflammatory effect. For this reason, various specialists are administering it to their patients to treat headaches and migraines.

It should be noted that despite the effectiveness of this hormone in treating various pathologies, its effectiveness is not scientifically proven. Therefore, it is important not to self-medicate and consult a professional in the field first, especially if it is administered to a child.


  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Some studies indicate that it has an anti-inflammatory effect
  • It has antioxidant properties
  • provides relaxation

Melatonin Health Benefits

  • Controls the production of gonadotropins. The sleep hormone melanin can also modulate the production of estrogen and progesterone. Hormones are responsible for the development and proper functioning of the male and female reproductive system.
  • Reduces the feeling of stress. Many times, stress is caused by a bad rest. Therefore, people who have low melatonin levels are more likely to have this condition. But when you have a good level of melatonin in the body, you rest better, and, therefore, the feeling of stress decreases.

What other benefits does taking melatonin have?

Although it is considered the ideal solution to regulate sleep disorders, it should be known that it also works effectively in other health problems. Next, we will indicate the most outstanding benefits:

Prevents premature aging

Clinical trials have revealed that a lack of melatonin causes accelerated aging. Given this, medications with this hormone have been used to reverse this problem. ISDINCEUTICS AGE is a cream with melatonin that effectively provides elasticity to the skin.

antioxidant effect

Various studies have shown that it prevents the oxidation of the mitochondria of cells. It also neutralizes free radicals, thus providing more energy to the body. Finally, it provides an antioxidant effect, ideal for slowing down the oxidation of the molecules in our body. It also prevents the aggression of free radicals or very reactive chemical substances, delaying aging.

neuroprotective property

Eta hormone helps regulate the sleep cycle, preventing memory loss, anxiety, brain inflammation, and other related pathologies.

Regulates the immune system. Lack of sleep produces various diseases related to the immune system. 

When this happens, the body’s cells and tissues are damaged. But by consuming melatonin, the immune system is strengthened to fight infections and external agents.

How to take melatonin?

Melatonin can be consumed sublingually in tablets, syrups, sprays, creams, food supplements, injectables, and soft capsules. The speed of action of this hormone will depend on the type of presentation of the drug.

Injectable melatonin treatments in tablets, syrups and soft capsules usually have an immediate effect compared to other presentations. Doctors generally recommend taking melatonin-based medications 15 to 30 minutes before sleeping. 

How to use melatonin?

It provides various benefits to the body, but a doctor must supervise its consumption. Excessive consumption of this hormone is not recommended.

A specialist can prescribe doses of melatonin in different presentations so that you can consume it most comfortably for you or your child. These are some of the displays in which you can drink this hormone:

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